Tuesday, September 16, 2014

[biofuelwatch] Expanded Barro Regression in Studying Convergence Problem

Expanded Barro Regression in Studying Convergence Problem

This study develops the approach by Minh & Khanh [1] to the classic Barro and Sala-i-Martin method [2], [3] named "expanded Barro regression method", and applies this approach in analyzing the convergence of provincial per capita GDP in Vietnam over the period of 1991-2007. Different aspects of provincial convergence are considered in this paper. The estimated result on conver-gence from our model is compared to other models.


The R & D activities on biodiesel in Iran in general, and at TMU in particular, is considered to be at its infantry stage compared to similar research works carried out throughout the world. Perhaps the first step taken towards the R & D at TMU on biofuels was the result of an investigation presented at a national conference and published in its proceedings at Tehran, Iran [1]. Later on, a biofuel strategic plan was devised at Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), for bioenergy and biofuel R & D sustainable system development. One of the objectives in this strategic plan was to establish the laboratories and train the human resources in the form of M.Sc. and Ph.D. students. Consequently, biofuel laboratories were established followed by the development of a biomass and bioenergy strategic plan. These laboratories are today well known as TMU research and development bioenegy laboratories at Tarbiat Modres University, the college of agriculture campus [2]. The biodiesel R & D activity was part of the biomass and bioenergy R & D strategic plan. In this case, a number of research works were carried out [3-15] or going on [16-21] in the form of feasibility studies, M.Sc. dissertations and Ph.D. thesis. The results and the findings of the R & D on various topics have been either presented in conferences [22-66] and/or published in journals [67-82]. The biodiesel R & D activities also resulted in a few number of research patents [83-96]. Finally, the results are being published in the form of a book on biodiesel production and application technology [97]. A close scrutiny of the topics investigated reveals that the subject-vise R & D activities can be classified as:

• Feasibility study of sustainable feedstock

• Technology innovation

• Biodiesel fuel production, and finally

• Fuel application analysis. gjreww140917

Cite this paper

Minh, N. , Minh, N. and Khanh, P. (2014) Expanded Barro Regression in Studying Convergence Problem.American Journal of Operations Research4, 301-310. doi: 10.4236/ajor.2014.45029.


[1]Minh, N. and Khanh, P. (2013) Forecasting the Convergence State of per Capital Income in Vietnam. American Journal of Operations Research, 3, 487-496. 
[2]Barro, R.J. and Sala-i-Martin, X. (1991) Convergence across States and Regions. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1, 107-158. 
[3]Barro, R.J. and Sala-i-Martin, X. (1995) Economic Growth. McGraw-Hill, New York.
[4]Sala-i-Martin, X. (1996) The Classical Approach to Convergence Analysis. The Economic Journal, 106, 1019-1036. 
[5]Quah, D.T. (1993) Empirical Cross-Section Dynamics in Economic Growth. European Economic Review, 37, 426-434. 
[6]Bernard, A.B. and Jones, C.I. (1996) Comparing Apples to Oranges: Productivity Convergence and Measurement across Industries and Countries. American Economic Review, 86, 1216-1238.


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Biofuels are a wide range of fuels which are in some way derived from biomass.

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