Friday, February 27, 2009

biofuelwatch - Watchdog Says Peatlands Regulation Will Lead to Village-Level Conflicts



http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/news/article/11190.html

February 25, 2009

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Fidelis E. Satriastanti

Watchdog Says Peatlands Regulation Will Lead to Village-Level Conflicts

The new ministerial regulation allowing peatland forests to be converted into palm oil plantations not only poses a risk to the environment, but will also encourage conflict between local villagers and plantation owners, an advocacy group says.

Edi Sutrisno, head of campaigning and public education for the NGO Sawit Watch, said on Tuesday that the Ministry of Agriculture’s regulation could conflict with still-pending rules on spatial planning, leading to increased confrontations at the village level.

“The spatial planning regulation — to be drawn up by the provincial governments — was supposed to be finished prior to the ministry regulation so that those areas meant for industry could be distinguished from protected areas,” he said. “In the absence of this regulation, we have already seen many permit violations, and this will only get worse.”

He said villagers “will be confused and defensive because they will see that even though spatial planning hasn’t been completed, the palm oil producers have already been given the permits to manage what the villagers still see as their land.”

Over the objections of environmentalists, the ministry last week ended a year-long freeze on clearing peatlands for plantations but cut the total amount of qualifying forests from four million hectares to two million.

The government closed peatlands for agricultural conversion last year amid widespread protest from environmentalists, who have urged that the freeze be maintained. The Indonesia Palm Oil Producers Association, which represents 250 plantations, rejected the moratorium last year and had continued to oppose it.

Bustar Maistar, a forest campaigner for Greenpeace Indonesia, said the ministry had acted too quickly in making a new regulation, basing it on incomplete studies.

“It is still premature. The new regulation simply strengthens the old one,” he said, adding that the ministry itself “admitted that their studies on greenhouse gas effects were incomplete.”

Achmad Mangga Barani, director general of plantations at the Ministry of Agriculture, allowed that his office had not finished a study on emissions but said “we will work on it while information on the regulation is made public.”

Edi also called the environmental viability of the decision into question. He said the regulation — which could allow at least 70 percent of those areas with a peat depth of less than three meters to be turned into plantations — was further proof of government inconsistency.

“The peatlands must be seen as a whole ecosystem; there are no specific borders for it,” he said.

Achmad countered by saying that Indonesia had around 20 million hectares of peatlands, mostly in Sumatra and Kalimantan, yet only 10 percent qualify under the regulation to become palm oil plantations.

“There’s only going to be about two or three millions hectares with a peat depth of less than three meters,” he said.

But Edi said the government was flouting requirements of transparency by not revealing the results of their studies.

“If they are talking about only two million hectares of peatland forest, where are those places?” he asked.

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Norman Jiwan

Head of Department

Social and Environmental Risks Mitigation Initiatives

Sawit Watch, Association

Jl. Sempur Kaler No. 28

Bogor 16129
Phone: +62-251-8352171

Email: norman@sawitwatch.or.id

Homepage: www.sawitwatch.or.id

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biofuelwatch - Interview with Malaysia's Plantation Minster



World Refining Association has a press release ahead of its Asian Biofuels Roundtable in Malaysia next month. It features an interview with Hon. Datuk Peter Chin Fah Kui, MINISTER OF PLANTATION INDUSTRIES AND COMMODITIES/ MALAYSIA.

Here it is. I've commented on the Big Biofuels Blog

AB1 - PR 26.02.09

"Sustainability criteria must be science based verifiable and WTO- compatible", says the Malaysian Minister of Plantation Industries and Commodities

Kuala Lumpur, 24th February, 2009

Just a few weeks before the Asian Biofuels Roundtable, 23-25 March in Kuala Lumpur, the Hon. Datuk Peter Chin Fah Kui, MINISTER OF PLANTATION INDUSTRIES AND COMMODITIES/ MALAYSIA spoke with exclusivity to the World Refining Association. "We urge the EU to ensure that its sustainability scheme does not discriminate against third country producers and that the criteria used are science based, verifiable and WTO- compatible" said the Minister.

The Minister believes the long term future remains bright for the Asian Biofuels Industry. However, he highlighted "2009 will be a challenging year because of the issues confronting the industry in the world market, namely exports of subsidized US biodiesel to EU which is distorting biodiesel prices and trade, the EU Energy Directive and the global economic slowdown which might impact on our exports".

The Minister who will give a keynote address during the Asian Biofuels Roundtable also announced that "discussions with the biodiesel producers and petroleum companies are ongoing on areas critical to the implementation namely logistics and financing mechanism".

WRA: The World Refining Association and the participants of the Asian Biofuels Roundtable are delighted with the opportunity to listen directly from you during the event, Could you tell us the main points you will discuss during your opening keynote address? What are your expectative about the Roundtable?

Hon. Datuk Peter Chin Fah Kui MINISTER OF PLANTATION INDUSTRIES AND COMMODITIES:
I am very delighted to be invited to give the Keynote Address in the Asian Biofuels Roundtable 2009. The biofuels scenario is constantly changing. I would probably cover the issues and challenges facing biofuel producers, particularly in Malaysia and the implementation of the B5 programme in Malaysia. These would include: Impediments to market access to major markets such as EU and USA due to unfair legislations and other actions;B5 implementation in Malaysia, the issues and challenges; the need to move into next generation biofuels based on non-food biomass and the need for biofuel producers to act together to face these challenges including issues on sustainability.

I sincerely hope the Roundtable will come up with ideas and actions that can address these issues.

WRA: How do you see the key challenges and issues affecting the Asian Biofuels Industry?

Minister: In spite of the benefits that biofuels bring in terms of energy security, reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) and contributing towards socio-economic development of rural communities, there are several challenges that confronts us such as:

Feedstock: There are concerns that the cost of producing biofuels is more costly than the price of fossil fuels. As a major cost of biofuel is the cost of feedstock, rising prices of vegetable oils could put pressure on the cost of producing biofuels. In a country which subsidises its fuel in the retail market, the rise in the cost of biofuels is an additional cost burden for the government.

Infrastructure Investment: there are challenges in integrating biofuels into the established currents fuel market related to storage, blending and distribution of biofuels. It is clear that the development of a domestic biofuel market requires up front investment in the biofuel infrastructure which is critical to support large scale biofuels operations.

Sustainability: the issue on sustainability has taken into a new dimension when the EU introduced a renewable energy directive which introduces minimum GHG saving thresholds and it is compulsory for biofuel produced by the producing countries to be sustainable and not damaging the ecosystems such as land with high biodiversity value and high carbon stock ( e.g. peatland). We urge the EU to ensure that its sustainability scheme does not discriminate against third country producers and that the criteria used are science based, verifiable and WTO- compatible.

WRA: As we know, 2008 was a very hard year for the biofuels industry. What are the trends for the next 12 months? Can we be optimistic?

Minister: In Malaysia, the Government has started implementing the B5 programme starting with Government Agencies (having their own depots), followed by the industrial sector and later the mass transport sector. Full implementation is expected in early 2010. With full implementation, we are expected to consume 500,000 tonnes of palm oil annually for the implementation of B5 in the domestic market.
In 2008, the country exported 182,108 tonnes of palm methyl ester (PME) valued at RM610.7 million. In January 2009, we exported 12,731 tonnes of PME valued at RM30.19 million, which is promising. However, on the whole I think 2009 will be a challenging year because of the issues confronting the industry in the world market, namely exports of subsidized US biodiesel to EU which is distorting biodiesel prices and trade, the EU Energy Directive and the global economic slowdown which might impact on our exports.

WRA: What are your expectations regarding the B5 for the transport industry and what are the perspectives to move gradually to other industries?

Minister:
The Government has started implementing the B5 programme starting with Government Agencies (having their own depots), beginning 1st February 2009. The first two Government Department that have started using B5 is The City Hall of Kuala Lumpur (Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur) and The Malaysian Armed Forces (Angkatan Tentera Malaysia) in the central region. The implementation of B5 will be further extended to other Government Agencies which have their own depots. We are also working with PETRONAS to make available some retail stations to supply B5 to Government Departments. Besides the Government Agencies, the next phase of implementation would be the industrial sector, followed by the mass transport sector.
Discussions with the biodiesel producers and petroleum companies are ongoing on areas critical to the implementation namely logistics and financing mechanism.

WRA: the B5 was very welcome by the Malaysian Biofuels Industry. Which other initiatives is the government looking at to reduce the current oversupply of palm oil and help support palm oil prices.

Minister: the other measures undertaken by the Government are as follows:

The Oil Palm Replanting Incentive Scheme: the Oil Palm Replanting Incentive Scheme was launched in December 2008 as one of the government strategies to reduce the nation's high palm oil stock to ensure the stability of palm oil prices.

The Scheme with an allocation of RM200 million is aimed at felling 200,000 hectares of oil palm trees aged 25 years and above. An incentive of RM1,000 per hectare will be paid after the palms are felled. The felling of 200,000 hectares of oil palm area will reduce palm oil supply by 700,000 tonnes annually in the short term. All estates, organised smallholders schemes under Felda, Felcra, Risda and State Agencies and independent smallholders are eligible to apply under this scheme. The incentive is effective from 1st December 2008 and the closing date is on 30th June 2009. The palm trees must be felled before 31st March 2010. To date, we have approved 63,000 hectares under this Scheme.

Increasing CPO Duty Free Exports: the Government has also increased the quantum of CPO duty free exports to 3.0 million tonnes in 2009 to cater to markets which prefer CPO. Encouraging offtakes would reduce our stocks in the short term.

WRA: Nowadays, sustainability is one of the main topics when we talk about Biofuels. What are the strategies of the Malaysian Government to product Biofuels in a sustainable way?

Minister:
Malaysia is always promoting development of the palm oil industry in a sustainable way. We support initiatives by the industry such as the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil. Government through Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) has instituted codes of practices for the Industry to provide a guide for the industry to adopt sustainable practices. At the same time, we are engaging countries such as the EU and USA that are coming up with legislations which impose sustainability criteria on our palm and biofuel products. This includes the EU Directive on Renewable Energy.

WRA: How do you analyze the impact of the global financial crisis on the Asian Biofuels Industry?

Minister:
the sharp drop in crude oil prices coupled with the global financial crisis could slow the development of the biofuel industry in terms of stalling new investments. In addition, there are fears that the global recession would slow demand for fuel, which we are already seeing today. Despite, the bearish scenario and challenges these temporary conditions present, the long term future of the Asian Biofuel industry remains bright on its ability to meet future demand for fuel.

The Malaysian biodiesel industry has both the production capacity to a tune of 1.67 million tonnes and feedstock available to meet market demand both in the domestic and world market. It will remain an important component of the country's overall energy policy.

WRA: What is the position of the Malaysian government in the debate "Food vs. Fuel"?

Minister:
One of the biggest concerns in the use of biofuels is its impact on food security which has been blamed on rising food prices. As far as the Malaysian Government is concerned, the local mandate B5 if fully implemented will require only 500,000 tonnes annually or a mere 3% of our national production of CPO. In fact, 90% of Malaysian palm oil is used for traditional applications such as foodstuffs and oleochemicals (soap and cosmetics), while only a small fraction is destined for biofuel production.

On the other hand, there must be a right balance for use of palm oil and other vegetable oils for food and fuel. For Malaysia, we have limited 6 million tonnes per year of palm oil for biofuel. Currently, annual production of palm biodiesel is below 200,000 tonnes. We do not foresee that the food versus fuel issue will be a problem as it is now.

I view biofuels have only a minor influence on the rising food prices. There are other more influential factors such as increasing world population and increased demand for food, high price of oil , price speculation and hoarding activities, effect of natural disasters and productivity losses.

Having said that, I think the more basic issue is not simply competition between use of a commodity for food or fuel, but the use of land for food or non-food crops. To put it simply, wouldn't it be better to use good land to plant oil palm (which can be used both for food and fuel) rather than a fuel crop (such as Jatropha) which cannot be used as food? Hypothetically, if a food crisis indeed develops, palm oil used for biofuels could be diverted for food use whereas Jatropha for fuel cannot be diverted for food.

If we plant palm oil, we can use policies and legislation to ensure that the palm oil produced is sufficient for food uses and maintain the price at a reasonable level.

** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **

Since 1997 the World Refining Association has achieved worldwide recognition for the organisation of high level, strategic and technical conferences within the energy sector worldwide.

With a strong regional focus, the Asian Biofuels Roundtable, on 23-25 March 2009 - will provide a detailed view of all the latest developments within the Asian Biofuels market and will offer to the attendees the opportunity to hear from a panel of leading industry experts within all areas of the biofuels industry including governments, agribusiness companies, biofuel producers, investment and project finance companies, automotive manufacturers and cutting edge technology suppliers.

The participants will also have the opportunity to attend a site visit hosted by Sime Darby Biodiesel Plant on 23 March.

For all event enquiries, please contact:
Gustavo Favaron, Conference Manager
Tel: +44 (0)207 067 1800
Email:
g.favaron@theenergyexchange.co.uk
www.wraconferences.com/ab09

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biofuelwatch - Amazon Teetering on the Edge



http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=45898

By Mario Osava

RIO DE JANEIRO, Feb 26 (Tierramérica) - The Amazon Basin captures 12,000 to 16,000 square kilometres of water per year, and just 40 percent of that flows through the rivers. The rest returns to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration of the forests and is distributed throughout South America.

Deforestation is reducing the humidity that, carried by the winds, contributes to the water equilibrium of vast parts of the continent. Deforestation also intensifies erosion and surface drainage, which diverts water not only away from the natural irrigation of the Amazon, but also from faraway farmland.

In 2026, an Amazon converted into "the world's last grain reserve," criss-crossed by new highways and megaprojects for energy and regional integration, will attract billion-dollar investments, but with less forest and clean water, leading to serious environmental degradation that is accentuated by the impacts of climate change.

That description is the "Inching Along the Precipice" scenario of the GEO Amazon report, drafted over the last two years with contributions from 150 scientists from the eight countries of the Amazon region, coordinated by the Lima-based Research Centre of the University of the Pacific.

The environmental outlook study of the Amazon (GEO Amazonia), sponsored by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organisation, and released Feb. 19, lays out four possible future scenarios based on combinations of variables and a wide range of information.

The more optimistic "Emerging Amazonia" predicts that by 2026 there will be better environmental management and regulation of productive activities, under the "polluters pay" concept, but with a remaining lag in eco-efficient technologies and best use of biodiversity.

In another scenario, "Light and Shadow", the region continues seeking sustainable development routes, with an emphasis on science, technology and innovation, and attempting to halt harmful productive activities. "The Once-Green Hell" scenario portrays a more dramatic future, with "irreversible loss of natural and cultural wealth," more poverty and deeper inequalities.

The Global Environment Outlook (GEO) methodology developed by UNEP is interesting because it offers an integral view and describes "possible situations conditioned by different factors and uncertainties" in order to guide decisions, commented Marcos Ximenes, director of the environmental research institute of the Amazon, known as IPAM, which contributed to the report.

The big challenge is that this broad knowledge needs to be "taken seriously by decision-makers," Ximenes told Tierramérica, recalling his experience with other GEO reports that did not give rise to practical results.

In any case, the process of creating integral knowledge should be ongoing, with greater resources and promotion, he said. This first report was carried out with scarce resources and voluntary contributions, he pointed out.

The data and analyses of GEO Amazonia are not new, nor are they current or complete, but collecting them in a systematic way marks an advance, in part because they include the entire region and not just country-based portions, commented Adalberto Verissimo, of the Institute of Man and the Environment in the Amazon (Imazon).

For the first time, a figure for the deforested area of the entire Amazon Basin has been presented, although it is "surely underestimated," because the countries, with the exception of Brazil, have not yet developed adequate measurement systems, Verissimo said in a Tierramérica interview.

The accumulated sum of deforested area, according to the report, was 857,666 square kilometres in 2005, equivalent to 17 percent of the entire Amazon jungle. The expansion of deforestation reached a 27,218 square kilometre annual average between 2000 and 2005.

Deforestation already affects more than 18 percent of all Amazonia, and 15 percent of it takes place in Brazil, estimates Verissimo, who systematically monitors the phenomenon in his country.

In his opinion, the outlook on the threats to biodiversity is also "conservative" because it is based on information that is already several years old. There are 26 already extinct species, 644 in critical danger, and 3,827 that are endangered or threatened, according to the report.

But GEO Amazonia does play a positive role by pressing all countries to improve their ability to research and monitor the region, guiding the studies and establishing priorities, he said.

Constant updating is essential. The report does not include, for example, the reduction of deforestation in Brazil last year, which contradicts a traditional correlation: when agricultural prices go up, more forest is razed for crops, noted Paulo Barreto, also of Imazon.

In fact, deforestation in Brazil has been on the decline since before the outbreak of the current global economic crisis, when soybean and beef prices were still very high - factors traditionally behind the expansion of the farming frontier in the Amazon, he explained.

The portrait painted in the report does not lead to much optimism. Beef cattle, one of the main causes of deforestation, jumped from 34.7 million head in 1994 to 73.7 million in 2006 in the Brazilian Amazon, and continue to expand quickly as well in the Bolivian and Colombian parts of the basin.

Soy, lumber and mining, as well as major hydroelectric projects in Brazil and others carried out under the South American Regional Infrastructure Integration Initiative (IIRSA), which the Brazilian government has made a priority, are other economic pressures on the Amazon forest and biodiversity.

And demographic pressure is evident in a population growing faster than the national average. The just over five million residents of the Amazon in 1970 have increased six-fold, reaching 33.5 million in 2007 - that is, 11 percent of the total population of the eight Amazon Basin countries.

In seven chapters, the GEO Amazonia report covers aspects about the land, the situation today, and future scenarios.

The conclusions indicate increased degradation of the ecosystem and the need for greater local community participation in the discussion to define "lines of action," such as creating an integral vision, harmonising public policies, designing joint strategies and promoting economic valorisation of environmental services.

(*This story was originally published by Latin American newspapers that are part of the Tierramérica network. Tierramérica is a specialised news service produced by IPS with the backing of the United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Environment Programme and the World Bank.) (END/2009)

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Thursday, February 26, 2009

biofuelwatch - The pluses and (mostly) minuses of biofuels



http://www.physorg.com/news154625430.html

February 23rd, 2009 By Robert Sanders in Technology / Energy
The pluses and (mostly) minuses of biofuels

Speakers at last week's AAAS meeting presented abundant evidence that tropical rainforest destruction has accelerated in recent years, at least in part because of the worldwide push to produce more biofuels.

As Europe and America rush to supplant polluting fossil fuels with plant-derived fuels like ethanol, soy and palm oil, farmers in the tropics are accelerating forest clearing to plant more sugarcane, soybeans and palm trees to meet the demand. What should be carbon-neutral biofuels - the carbon dioxide these plants take in while growing is returned to the atmosphere when they're burned, resulting in zero net carbon release - end up spewing more CO2 into the atmosphere as forests are slashed and burned.

Carbon dioxide is such a potent greenhouse gas that one recent study estimated it will take hundreds of years to recoup the greenhouse gas damage of clearing rainforests to grow and harvest plants for biofuels.

In one session, Michael Coe of Woods Hole Research Center in Massachusetts illustrated one ripple effect from the stampede to create more ethanol from corn in the United States. As corn prices skyrocketed several years ago, soybean fields were converted to corn, and the price of soy rose. As a result, farmers in Brazil, one of the main countries with the soil, climate and infrastructure to make up the difference, began to bulldoze rainforest to grow more soybeans.

"If reduced U.S. soybean production results in a parallel increase in Brazilian soybean production, a potential net release of 1,800 to 9,100 Tg (trillion grams) of CO2-equivalents of greenhouse gas emissions due to land-use change is possible," Coe wrote in a summary of his talk. That is equivalent to more than 9 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide.

Bulldozing Indonesian rainforests to plant oil palms

In the same session, Holly Gibbs of Stanford University reported that, despite assurances by biofuel producers that biofuel crops are being grown on degraded or already cleared lands, forest clearing throughout the tropics has increased. In Indonesia and Malaysia, especially, deforestation has accelerated as farmers scramble to plant oil palms to supply Europe with biodiesel fuel.

While growing crops on degraded land "would be restoring the land to a higher potential to provide environmental services for people," she said, "if biofuels are grown in place of forests, we're actually going to end up emitting a huge amount of carbon."

In the face of these reports that biofuels are worsening global warming, Dan Kammen, a UC Berkeley professor of energy and resources and director of the Renewable and Alternative Energy Laboratory, tried in a Feb. 14 session to put biofuels into perspective.

"No matter what people say about the good or bad aspects of a given fuel, whether it's oil, tar sands, biofuels, solar or wind, the fact is, a large number of these will be used for economic reasons, based on subsidies, momentum, vested interests, whatever," he said in his talk, "A Hunger for Power: The Global Nexus of Energy and Food." The key, he said, is to design global models that will guide policy makers in making the right choices.

The country has to develop models that allow us to assess "biofuel demand from a global perspective. You can't just look at it in terms of what happens on a hectare of land in Iowa, but also in terms of the conflicts between food, fiber, fuel and nature," Kammen said.

With regard to biofuels, Kammen was in agreement with the scientists reporting the negative aspects of biofuels in use today.

From a global perspective, he said, it's clear that "if we pursue the path we are on, it is an environmental and food security loser." Based on a soon-to-be-published study by Kammen and colleagues at Purdue University, no matter how sustainably the United States grows corn for ethanol, it will have a negative impact on greenhouse gases because of the growth of soy in tropics.

Leading the way to cellulosic

Research programs like UC Berkeley and LBNL's Energy Biosciences Institute, funded last year by oil giant BP to the tune of $500 million over 10 years, are developing such models at the same time as they are pursuing next-generation biofuels. Cellulosic biofuels, made by more complete fermentation of biofuel feedstocks, won't be commercially viable for 5-10 years, but they and other technologies, including algae, are attractive options that together may combine to produce as much as 10 percent of the nation's energy needs, he said.

"None is a home run individually, but if together they could be done sustainably, they are big enough opportunities that there will be strong economic forces to develop a range of them," said Kammen.

He held up California as an example of what the nation and the world can do to reduce greenhouse gas emissions using biofuels as one part of a broad "energy portfolio." The state's AB 32, passed in 2006, presents a framework for reducing carbon emissions, with the 2020 goal of returning California emissions to what they were in 1990, which would amount to slightly more than a 25 percent reduction from current emissions.

More importantly, a 2005 executive order by Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger established the goal of reducing carbon emissions 80 percent by 2050, which is the number that "those of us who work with the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) have effectively endorsed, not as a solution to global warming, but as the best soft landing; the beginning of what we want to get to," Kammen said.

Combined with California's low carbon fuel standard, which addresses carbon emissions from vehicles, and the state's developing renewable energy portfolio, which mandates that 33 percent of the state's electricity come from zero-carbon sources by 2020, California has created a model for the nation. In fact, he said, "a version of California's plan, scaled up to the size of the nation, is Obama's evolving federal plan - the endpoint numbers are about the same, though the paths are not yet set."

While Kammen admitted that he expects biofuels to be replaced by better and sustainable sources of energy within 50 years, for now they will remain part of a portfolio that will include solar and wind as well as coal, oil and nuclear power.

"We, as a nation, need to use what is happening in the U.S. West and in California as an example of the context in which biofuels are being explored," said Kammen.

Provided by UC Berkeley

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Wednesday, February 25, 2009

biofuelwatch - Bob Geldof to speak at World Biofuels Markets, 16-18/3/09



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World Biofuels Markets - Europe's Largest Biofuels Congress and Exhibition


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Dear Colleague

World Biofuels Markets 2009 - make sure you don't miss:


1. Three full congress days addressing the Sustainable Bio Future:

- Algae Fuels
- Cellulosic Ethanol
- Renewable Diesel & Synfuels
- Biobased chemicals & Bioplastics
- Forestry Biofuels & Jatropha
- Sustainability & Policy

2. Keynote speakers including Sir Bob Geldof, Lord Browne, Dr Hermann Scheer, Dr Zoran Stančič, Dr Philip New, Pedro Carrillo, Carlos A Riva and Michael Liebreich

3. The launch of the Sustainable Biofuels Awards on 17 March -
vote now!

4.
The chance to network with industry leaders and discover new industry innovations during three days of exhibition

90-Billion Gallon Biofuel Deployment Study:

Session 6D, 18 March 2009 - an indepth presentation of the 90-Billion Gallon Biofuel Deployment Study, which was carried out by Sandia National Laboratories and GM's R&D Center. The study will be presented by Robert Carling, Director, Transportation Energy Center, US Government Sandia National Laboratories and will include discussion of land use, water availability, energy used to produce cellulosic biomass, transportation of feedstocks and other potential leverage points for the development and use of cellulosic biofuels. Please click here to view the executive summary of the full report.


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